Gene discovery reference:

Li D, Tapscoft T, Gonzalez O, Burch P, Quinones M, Zoghbi W, Hill R, Bachinski L, Mann D, and Roberts R.  Desmin mutation responsible for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.  Circ. 1999;100:461-464.

Other DES reports:

Tesson F, Sylvius N, Pilotto A, et al. Epidemiology of desmin and cardiac actin gene mutations in a European population of dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur Heart J 2000;21:1872-6.